Every federal agency (including the FBI and CIA) has one, as do many city agencies. In fact, the NYPD — despite its size and operations — stands alone among major American police departments for lacking any meaningful independent oversight (L.A., Chicago, and Philadelphia all have broad independent bodies with subpoena power, for example). IGs help agencies work better. When they are following the law and doing the job right, IGs help provide independent confirmation and legitimacy. When there are ways to do it better, IGs suggest them. The only agencies with something to fear from an IG are those that are not obeying the law.